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Underwriting and investing

The business model can be reduced to a simple equation: Profit = earned premium + investment income - incurred loss - underwriting expenses.
Finally, claims and loss handling is the materialized utility of insurance; it is the actual "product" paid for, though one hopes it will never need to be used. Claims may be filed by insureds directly with the insurer or through brokers or agents. The insurer may require that the claim be filed on its own proprietary forms, or may accept claims on a standard industry form such as those produced by ACORD.